Journal Articles

Publication Date



American Journal of Health Promotion


PURPOSE: to evaluate the effectiveness of a telephone navigation intervention for increasing use of cancer control services among underserved 2-1-1 callers.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING: 2-1-1 call centers in Houston and Weslaco, Texas (located in the Rio Grande Valley near the Mexican border).

PARTICIPANTS: 2-1-1 callers in need of Pap test, mammography, colorectal cancer screening, smoking cessation counseling, and/or HPV vaccination for a daughter (n = 1,554). A majority were low-income and described themselves as Black or Hispanic.

INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a cancer control referral for the needed service(s) with telephone navigation from a trained cancer control navigator (n = 995) or a referral only (n = 559).

MEASURES: Uptake of each individual service and any needed service.

ANALYSIS: Assessed uptake in both groups using bivariate chi-square analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Both per-protocol and intent-to-treat approaches were used.

RESULTS: Both interventions increased cancer control behaviors. Referral with navigation intervention resulted in significantly greater completion of any needed service (OR = 1.38; p = .042), Pap test (OR = 1.56; p = .023), and smoking cessation counseling (OR = 2.66; p = .044), than referral-only condition. Other outcomes showed the same trend although the difference was not statistically significant: mammography (OR = 1.53; p = .106); colorectal cancer screening (OR = 1.80; p = .095); and HPV vaccination of a daughter (OR = 1.61; p = .331).

CONCLUSION: Adding cancer control referrals and navigation to an informational service like the 2-1-1 program can increase overall participation in cancer control services.


Colorectal Neoplasms, Early Detection of Cancer, Humans, Papillomavirus Infections, Smoking Cessation, Telephone

Included in

Public Health Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.