Journal Articles

Publication Date



International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health


Firefighters are intermittently exposed to complex, mixed pollutants in random settings. Of those pollutants, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are the most commonly studied and best understood. PAH exposure can occur via multiple routes; therefore, the levels of hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs in urine have been used as a biomonitoring tool for risk assessment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to estimate the levels of urinary hydroxylated PAH (OHPAH) among firefighters, determine risk attributions, and, finally, evaluate the scope of preventive efforts and their utility as diagnostic tools. The meta-regression confirmed increases in OHPAH concentrations after fire activities by up to 1.71-times (p-values:


Air Pollutants, Occupational, Environmental Monitoring, Firefighters, Humans, Occupational Exposure, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

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