Journal Articles

Publication Date



Annals of Family Medicine


The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is the most expensive of all routinely recommended pediatric vaccines. Adequate cost reimbursement by 3rd-party payers is a critical enabling factor for clinicians to continue offering vaccines. This study found that net returns from HPV vaccine cost reimbursements are lowest for family physicians ($0.34/dose) and highest for pediatricians ($5.08/dose). Furthermore, a $1 increment in return was associated with an increase in HPV vaccine doses administered (highest for family physicians; 0.08% per dollar). Reimbursement for HPV vaccine costs by private payers is adequate; however, return margins are small for non-pediatric specialties.


Humans, Child, Papillomavirus Vaccines, Private Sector, Physicians, Family, Medicine, Vaccination

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