Journal Articles

Publication Date



JNCI Cancer Spectrum


The objective of our study was to describe oral and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevalence and concordance by sexual orientation among US men using a nationally representative sample. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The survey conducts a physical examination and collects oral rinse and genital swab specimens; demographic and health behaviors are self-reported. We used descriptive statistics and multivariate regression models to estimate HPV infection prevalence and the likelihood of HPV infection, respectively. All analyses were adjusted for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey design and weights, and statistical significance was tested at a 2-sided P value of less than .05. Men who have sex with men had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of oral HPV (high-risk, 9-valent, 4-valent, and HPV 16 and 18), genital HPV (9-valent, 4-valent, and HPV 16 and 18), and concordant oral and genital HPV (high-risk and 9-valent) infections compared with heterosexual men. Improved HPV prevention among men is needed.


Humans, Male, Female, Papillomavirus Infections, Homosexuality, Male, Nutrition Surveys, Retrospective Studies, Prevalence, Cross-Sectional Studies, Risk Factors, Sexual and Gender Minorities, Sexual Behavior, Genitalia

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