Journal Articles

Publication Date



Breast Cancer Research and Treatment


PURPOSE: Equitable access to oncofertility services is a key component of cancer survivorship care, but factors affecting access and use remain understudied.

METHODS: to describe disparities in assisted reproductive technology (ART) use among women with breast cancer in California, we conducted a population-based cohort study using linked oncology, ART, and demographic data. We identified women age 18-45 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2015. The primary outcome was ART use-including oocyte/embryo cryopreservation or embryo transfer-after cancer diagnosis. We used log-binomial regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to identify factors associated with ART use.

RESULTS: Among 36,468 women with invasive breast cancer, 206 (0.56%) used ART. Women significantly less likely to use ART were age 36-45 years at diagnosis (vs. 18-35 years: PR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.13-0.22); non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (vs. non-Hispanic White: PR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.21-0.46); had at least one child (vs. no children: adjusted PR [aPR] = 0.39, 95% CI 0.25-0.60); or lived in non-urban areas (vs. urban: aPR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.75), whereas women more likely to use ART lived in high-SES areas (vs. low-/middle-SES areas: aPR = 2.93, 95% CI 2.04-4.20) or had private insurance (vs. public/other insurance: aPR = 2.95, 95% CI 1.59-5.49).

CONCLUSION: Women with breast cancer who are socially or economically disadvantaged, or who already had a child, are substantially less likely to use ART after diagnosis. The implementation of policies or programs targeting more equitable access to fertility services for women with cancer is warranted.


Female, Humans, Pregnancy, Breast Neoplasms, Cohort Studies, Reproductive Techniques, Assisted, Pregnancy Outcome, Ethnicity



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