Journal Articles

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Journal of Neurotrauma


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is prevalent among active duty military service members, with studies reporting up to 23% experiencing at least one TBI, with 10-60% of service members reporting at least one subsequent repeat TBI. A TBI has been associated with an increased risk of cumulative effects and long-term neurobehavioral symptoms, impacting operational readiness in the short-term and overall health in the long term. The association between multiple TBI and post-concussive symptoms (PCS), however, defined as symptoms that follow a concussion or TBI, in the military has not been adequately examined. Previous studies in military populations are limited by methodological issues including small sample sizes, the use of non-probability sampling, or failure to include the total number of TBI. to overcome these limitations, we examined the association between the total lifetime number of TBI and total number of PCS among U.S. active duty military service members who participated in the Millennium Cohort Study. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Millennium Cohort Study's 2014 survey (


Humans, Post-Concussion Syndrome, Cohort Studies, Brain Injuries, Traumatic, Brain Concussion, Amnesia

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