Journal Articles

Publication Date



JNCI Cancer Spectrum


BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents has steadily improved over the past several years. However, research conducted to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted this positive trend in HPV vaccine initiation among racial and ethnic minority adolescents is limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting changes in the US health-care sector affected the increasing HPV vaccine initiation among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic adolescents aged 13-17 years.

METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design to examine data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2019-2021), logistic regression and moderation analysis were used to model race-specific variations in HPV vaccine initiation (n = 49 031). Two-sided P values of up to .05 were considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16 to 1.57) and non-Hispanic Black (AOR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.51) adolescents had higher odds of HPV vaccine initiation than did non-Hispanic White adolescents. Additionally, the odds of HPV vaccine initiation were higher in 2021 (AOR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.38) than in 2019. Other variables-age, region, sex, insurance status, and poverty status-were also associated with HPV vaccine initiation.

CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that during the COVID-19 pandemic, racial and ethnic minorities had higher odds of receiving the HPV vaccine. Therefore, more research of the impact of the pandemic on HPV vaccine initiation among non-Hispanic White and racial and ethnic minority adolescents is needed.


Humans, Adolescent, Ethnicity, Ethnic and Racial Minorities, Papillomavirus Infections, Human Papillomavirus Viruses, Pandemics, Prevalence, Cross-Sectional Studies, Minority Groups, Papillomavirus Vaccines, COVID-19, Vaccination



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