Journal Articles

Publication Date



Preventive Medicine Reports


Provider recommendation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents has steadily improved over the years, however, limited research has been conducted to examine if the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted this positive trend in parent-reported provider recommendation among minority adolescents. Therefore, we conducted the present study to determine if there is an association between the pandemic and parent-reported provider recommendation of HPV vaccine among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adolescents. We also examined whether any changes in parent-reported provider recommendation in the years 2019, 2020, and 2021 differed by race or ethnicity. Using a cross-sectional design to examine data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2019-2021), a moderation analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to model race-specific variation in parent-reported provider recommendation (n = 50,739). We found that Hispanic parents had lower odds (aOR = 0.80 [0.71, 0.91]) of reporting receiving a recommendation compared to non-Hispanic white parents. We also found that the odds of parent-reported provider recommendation were higher in 2020 (aOR = 1.15 [1.03-1.29]) than in 2019. Other variables-age, region, sex, health insurance status, and poverty status-were all associated with parent-reported provider recommendation. These findings demonstrated that the pandemic may not have triggered any race-related gap in the recommendation of HPV vaccines, however, more pandemic-resilient public health efforts are needed to improve parent and provider communication regarding HPV vaccination of adolescents.


Adolescents, COVID-19 pandemic, HPV vaccination, Minorities, Provider recommendation, Telemedicine



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