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Mounting evidence suggests that meal timing and frequency are associated with cardiometabolic health by influencing circadian rhythms. However, the evidence is inconsistent and limited, especially in non-Western cultures. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the association between temporal habits of dietary intake, such as nightly fasting duration and meal frequency, and metabolic syndrome among Kuwaiti adults. A 24-hour recall was used to assess temporal habits of dietary intake. Meal frequency was defined as the number of daily eating episodes. The study included a total of 757 adults aged 20 years and older. The participants' mean age was 37.8 ± 12.3 years. After adjusting for all confounders, higher meal frequency was found to be associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults (OR, 0.43; 95%CI, 0.19-0.96) and a lower prevalence of elevated triglycerides in men only (OR, 0.23; 95%CI, 0.09-0.60). No association was found between nightly fasting and metabolic syndrome, but a longer fasting duration was associated with a lower prevalence of elevated triglycerides (OR, 0.19; 95%CI, 0.06-0.63). The findings suggest that having frequent meals and longer durations of nightly fasting may help decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome and elevated triglycerides.


Adult, Male, Humans, Middle Aged, Metabolic Syndrome, Cross-Sectional Studies, Kuwait, Fasting, Hypertriglyceridemia, Meals, Triglycerides



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