Journal Articles

Publication Date



CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics


BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) or OCT angiography (OCTA) has been investigated in few research studies of psychiatric disorders. No research has been done using OCT or OCTA in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD).

METHODS: OCTA measured foveal avascular zone (FAZ), macular vessel density (MVD), and peripapillary vessel density (PVD). OCT measured the peripapillary retinal fiber layer (RNFL) and central retinal thickness (CRT). The study utilized the Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) to assess the symptom characteristics of individuals with BPD.

RESULTS: Fifty-nine eyes of BPD patients and 58 eyes of normal subjects were analyzed, MVD of the superficial retinal capillary plexus declined noticeably in most subfields (p < 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the whole inner ring and outer ring index between BPD and HC groups (p < 0.05). The patients with BPD exhibited lower RNFL and CRT, the difference was significant (p < 0.05). CRT indicated a significant negative correlation with the Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory (p < 0.05). In addition, we observed that there was a negative correlation identified between the MVD of the inner ring and HAMA (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the MVD of the outer ring was positively correlated with GAF (p < 0.05). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) for distinguishing BPD and HC eyes in OCTA were the highest for fovea MVD (0.679), followed by outer ring MVD (0.669), inner ring MVD (0.641), FAZ (0.579). In OCT, CRT was highest for BPD (0.711), followed by RNFL (0.625).

CONCLUSION: The OCT and OCTA can non-invasively detect microvascular and morphology changes of the retina in BPD patients compared to healthy control subjects.


Borderline Personality Disorder, Oct Angiography, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, Perfusion Density



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