The paper was entitled: “The Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on At-Risk Populations Experiencing stress and Family Violence: The Importance of An Action Model.”

As the title of the paper indicates, the paper had an ambitious task of showing how vulnerable populations, such as African Americans, because of racism, discrimination and subsequent inequities in their life experiences (such as inadequate health care, poor working conditions, a host of underlying health conditions, and potentially greater amounts of stress) are likely to become sicker with COVID-19 (higher morbidity and mortality) and, subsequently, more likely to experience higher than normal rates of family violence.

The paper discussed different types of family violence, such as elder abuse, sibling abuse, child abuse and intimate partner violence. However, whatever form of family violence that is taking place in today’s society is usually intertwined with a complex mixture of factors that begin at the wider society or macro-levels, trickling down through the community and/or middle or meso-levels, and eventually landing at the individual or micro-levels of society.

To better understand the complex array of societal factors, alluded to before, all of which individually and collectively help to explain how the era of the Covid-19 pandemic increased levels of stress and later the likelihood of different types of family violence, an Action Model was used as a guiding light. In essence, rather than just make alluding relational statements, as the literature warranted, steps were taken to link these important relational statements to exact sections of the Action Model depicted in the specially modified and highly illustrated Action Model of the paper. The paper closed with some recommended policy suggestions, tips, best practices and accessible resources for both stress management and family violence prevention.

Key Take Away Points

- How vulnerable are at-risk minority populations are to health challenges

- How vulnerable are at-risk minority populations to family violence

- The contributory influence of stress to health and health outcomes

- The need to know about and manage stress

- The importance influence of the current COVID-19 pandemic on vulnerable and at-risk populations to experience adverse health outcomes, including various forms of family violence

- The importance of having an Action Model to better understand the complex array of factors beginning at the macro-level, through the meso-level and ending at the micro-levels of society

Author Biography

Bio for Main Author – Ivor l. Livingston Ivor L. Livingston, Ph.D., M.P.H., C.H.E.S. is currently a full professor of Medical Sociology and Social Epidemiology in the Department of Sociology and Criminology at Howard University, Washington, DC. As a social epidemiologist, Dr. Livingston has written 50+ scientific publications in journals as the National Medical Association Journal, Social Science and Medicine, the West Indian Medical Journal, the Humboldt Journal. Perhaps his most outstanding and comprehensive publication was the 2-Volumn, 45-Chapter, Edited Book ”The Praeger Handbook of Black American Health...” Dr. Livingston’s main research has been identifying the social epidemiological contributions to selected health outcomes (e.g., hypertension, HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, alcohol consumption) involving African American, Africans and people from the Caribbean. Throughout all of Dr. Livingston’s teachings, publications and conferences he has been associated with in the past, the common thread has been the main contributions of stress, either directly or indirectly to selected health and health-related outcomes in vulnerable and at-risk populations of color. Dr. Livingston is a Nationally Certified Wellness Coach. Dr. Livingston was educated at Howard University (B.S., M.S., Ph.D.), the School of Public Health, Harvard University (M.P.H.), the School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Cardiovascular Social Epidemiology. He is also a Nationally Certified Health Education Specialist (C.H.E.S) Certified by the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. -------------------------- Bio for Co-Author – Litonya Livingston-Doles Litonya Livingston-Doles is currently a health educator with expertise in health and wellness promotion. While her fourteen years plus experience as a health educator has been mainly with young adults, she has had other extensive experiences with a variety of age groups through her consulting organization, Health Industry Solutions (HIS). She is a Certified Health Education Specialist (C.H.E.S.) who has worked with clients to educate and improve their health and wellbeing through enhancing their mental, nutritional and physical experiences. Additionally, Mrs. Livingston-Doles has expertise in working with the design, implementation and evaluation of content and strategies that can be used to intervene, control and prevent at-risk health behaviors and practices among all segments of the population. She completed both her undergraduate (B.S.) and graduate (M.S.) degrees in Health Education and Health Promotion at Howard University in Washington, DC. Adjunct Lecturer Howard University