Date of Graduation


Document Type

Dissertation (PhD)

Program Affiliation

Medical Physics

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Advisor/Committee Chair

Wayne D. Newhauser, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Christoph Bert, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Rebecca M. Howell, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Carol Etzel, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Anita Mahajan, M.D.

Committee Member

George Starkschall, Ph.D.


Although frequently cured of Hodgkin lymphoma, adolescents and young adults can develop radiation induced second cancers. These patients could potentially benefit from scanned ion radiotherapy yet likely would require motion mitigation strategies. In theory, four-dimensional (4D) optimization of ion beam fields for individual motion states of respiration can enable superior sparing of healthy tissue near moving targets, compared to other motion mitigation strategies. Furthermore, carbon-ion therapy can sometimes provide greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell sterilization in a target but nearly equivalent RBE in tissue upstream of the target, compared to proton therapy. Thus, we expected that for some patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, carbon-ion therapy would reduce the predicted risk of second cancer incidence in the breast compared with proton therapy. The purpose of this work was to determine whether 4D-optimized carbon-ion therapy would significantly reduce the predicted risk of radiation induced second cancers in the breast for female Hodgkin lymphoma patients while preserving tumor control compared with proton therapy. To achieve our goals, we first investigated whether 4D-optimized carbon beam tracking could reduce dose to volumes outside a moving target compared with 3D-optimized carbon beam tracking while preserving target dose coverage. To understand the reliability of scanned carbon beam tracking, we studied the robustness of dose distributions in thoracic targets to uncertainties in patient motion. Finally, we investigated whether using carbon-ion therapy instead of proton therapy would significantly reduce the predicted risk of second cancer in the breast for a sample of Hodgkin lymphoma patients. We found that 4D-optimized ion beam tracking therapy can reduce the maximum dose to critical structures near a moving target by as much as 53%, compared to 3D-optimized ion beam tracking therapy. We validated these findings experimentally using a scanned carbon ion synchrotron and a motion phantom. We found scanned carbon beam tracking to be sensitive to a number of motion uncertainties, most notably phase delays in tracking, systematic spatial errors, and interfractional motion changes. Our findings indicate that a lower risk of second cancer in the breast might be expected for some Hodgkin lymphoma patients using carbon-ion therapy instead of proton therapy. For our reference scenario, we found the ratio of risk to be 0.77 ± 0.35 for radiogenic breast cancer after carbon-ion therapy versus proton therapy. Our findings were dependent on the RBE values for tumor induction and the radiosensitivity of breast tissue, as well as the physical dose distribution.


ion therapy, carbon, proton therapy, motion, lung, Hodgkin lymphoma, 4D optimization, beam tracking, robustness, second cancer



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.