Publication Date



Nanoscale Advances


Multivalent ligands hold promise for enhancing avidity and selectivity to simultaneously target multimeric proteins, as well as potentially modulating receptor signaling in pharmaceutical applications. Essential for these manipulations are nanosized scaffolds that precisely control ligand display patterns, which can be achieved by using polyproline oligo-helix macrocyclic nanoscaffolds via selective binding to protein oligomers and cell surface receptors. This work focuses on synthesis and structural characterization of different-sized polyproline tri-helix macrocyclic (PP3M) scaffolds. Through combined analysis of circular dichroism (CD), small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and molecular modeling, a non-coplanar tri-helix loop structure with partially crossover helix ends is elucidated. This structural model aligns well with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. The present work enhances the precision of nanoscale organic synthesis, offering prospects for controlled ligand positioning on scaffolds. This advancement paves the way for further applications in nanomedicine through selective protein interaction, manipulation of cell surface receptor functions, and developments of more complex polyproline-based nanostructures.



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