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cSCC is increasing in prevalence due to increased lifespans and improvements in survival for conditions that increase the risk of cSCC. The absolute mortality of cSCC exceeds melanoma in the United States and approaches that of melanoma worldwide. This review presents significant changes in the management of cSCC, focusing on improvements in risk stratification, new treatment options, optimization of existing treatments, and prevention strategies. One major breakthrough in cSCC treatment is the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which have ushered in a renaissance in the treatment of patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease. These agents have offered patients with advanced disease decreased therapeutic toxicity compared to traditional chemotherapy agents, a more durable response after discontinuation, and improved survival. cSCC is an active field of research, and this review will highlight some of the novel and more developed clinical trials that are likely to impact cSCC management in the near future.


chemoprevention, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, immunotherapy, solid organ transplant recipients



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