Publication Date



Bone Research


Recent studies have determined that the nervous system can sense and respond to signals from skeletal tissue, a process known as skeletal interoception, which is crucial for maintaining bone homeostasis. The hypothalamus, located in the central nervous system (CNS), plays a key role in processing interoceptive signals and regulating bone homeostasis through the autonomic nervous system, neuropeptide release, and neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms control the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (OBs), the activation of osteoclasts (OCs), and the functional activities of bone cells. Sensory nerves extensively innervate skeletal tissues, facilitating the transmission of interoceptive signals to the CNS. This review provides a comprehensive overview of current research on the generation and coordination of skeletal interoceptive signals by the CNS to maintain bone homeostasis and their potential role in pathological conditions. The findings expand our understanding of intersystem communication in bone biology and may have implications for developing novel therapeutic strategies for bone diseases.


Humans, Homeostasis, Central Nervous System, Afferent Pathways, Autonomic Nervous System, Bone Diseases



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