Publication Date





Xenon (Xe) has shown great potential as a stroke treatment due to its exceptional ability to protect brain tissue without inducing side effects. We have previously developed Xe-loaded liposomes for the ultrasound-activated delivery of Xe into the cerebral region and demonstrated their therapeutic efficacy. At present, the sole FDA-approved thrombolytic agent for stroke treatment is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of combining Xe-liposomes with an intravenous rtPA treatment in a clinically relevant embolic rat stroke model. We evaluated the combinational effect using an in vitro clot lysis model and an in vivo embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO) rat model. The treatment groups received intravenous administration of Xe-liposomes (20 mg/kg) at 2 h post-stroke onset, followed by the administration of rtPA (10 mg/kg) at either 2 or 4 h after the onset. Three days after the stroke, behavioral tests were conducted, and brain sections were collected for triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and TUNEL staining. Infarct size was determined as normalized infarct volume (%). Both in vitro and in vivo clot lysis experiments demonstrated that Xe-liposomes in combination with rtPA resulted in effective clot lysis comparable to the treatment with free rtPA alone. Animals treated with Xe-liposomes in combination with rtPA showed reduced TUNEL-positive cells and demonstrated improved neurological recovery. Importantly, Xe-liposomes in combination with late rtPA treatment reduced rtPA-induced hemorrhage, attributing to the reduction of MMP9 immunoreactivity. This study demonstrates that the combined therapy of Xe-liposomes and rtPA provides enhanced therapeutic efficacy, leading to decreased neuronal cell death and a potential to mitigate hemorrhagic side effects associated with late rtPA treatment.


Animals, Rats, Ischemic Stroke, Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Liposomes, Stroke, Fibrinolytic Agents, Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions, Infarction, Thrombolytic Therapy



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.