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Introduction Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which can cause organ failure in several organs, cardiac problems, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Identifying clinical epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for complications of COVID-19 allows clinicians to diagnose and treat promptly. Objectives This study aims to describe the clinical epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 and assess risk factors for the severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in children treated at Haiphong Children's Hospital. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Haiphong Children's Hospital, Haiphong, Vietnam, for one year, from January 1, 2022, to December 31, 2022. Results In our study, 540 children were evaluated; the male-to-female ratio was 1.48/1; the median age was 23 months (IQR=6-74); Children aged under one year accounted for the highest proportion (n=202; 37.4%); 40 (7.4%) children had underlying illnesses. The number of admitted patients diagnosed with COVID-19 peaked in February 2022. Regarding severity, 380 (70.4%) cases were mild, 136 (25.2%) were moderate, only 24 (4.4%) cases were severe, and no children died. Common symptoms were fever in 483 (89.4%), coughing in 399 (73.9%), and tachypnea in 163 (30.2%) children. Laboratory features: white blood cell count, platelet count, serum CRP, and coagulation test showed little change. Around 116 (21.5%) had lymphopenia and 148 (27.4%) had pneumonia. Patients under one year were approximately 1.64 times more likely to experience pneumonia complications from COVID-19 than those without such a history (OR=1.64, 95%CI = 1.12 - 2.41, p=0.0112). Patients with underlying conditions were approximately 2.08 times more likely to experience pneumonia complications from COVID-19 compared to those without such conditions (OR=2.08, 95%CI =1.08 - 4.02, p=0.0289). Conclusion In COVID-19 pediatric patients, the severity of the disease was mild to moderate without any mortality. Children aged under one year accounted for the highest proportion of all COVID-19 patients. This study found that age under one year and underlying illnesses are related to pneumonia in COVID-19 pediatric patients.


clinical epidemiology, pneumonia, children, covid-19, sars-cov-2



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