Publication Date



JACC: Basic to Translational Science


Late in-stent restenosis remains a significant problem. Bare-metal stents were implanted into peripheral arteries in miniature swine, followed by direct intra-arterial infusion of nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 conjugated ELIPs loaded with pioglitazone exposed to an endovascular catheter with an ultrasonic core. Ultrasound-facilitated delivery of ELIP formulations into stented peripheral arteries attenuated neointimal growth. Local atheroma-targeted, ultrasound-triggered delivery of nitric oxide and pioglitazone, an anti-inflammatory peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, into stented arteries has the potential to stabilize stent-induced neointimal growth and obviate the need for long-term antiplatelet therapy.


atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, nitric oxide, pioglitazone, ultrasound contrast agent



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