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BACKGROUND: Antifungal prophylaxis can prevent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in high-risk, immunocompromised patients. This study assessed the real-world use of mold-active triazoles (MATs) for the prevention of IFDs.

METHODS: This subgroup analysis of a multicenter, observational, prospective registry in the United States from March 2017 to April 2020 included patients who received MATs for prophylaxis (isavuconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) at study index/enrollment. The primary objective was to describe patient characteristics and patterns of MAT use. Exploratory assessments included the frequency of breakthrough IFDs and MAT-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

RESULTS: A total of 1177 patients (256 isavuconazole, 397 posaconazole, 272 voriconazole, and 252 multiple/sequenced MATs at/after index/enrollment) were included in the prophylaxis subgroup analysis. Patient characteristics were similar across MAT groups, but risk factors varied. Hematological malignancy predominated (76.5%) across all groups. Breakthrough IFDs occurred in 7.1% (73/1030) of patients with an investigator's assessment (5.0% [11/221] isavuconazole; 5.3% [20/374] posaconazole; 4.0% [9/226] voriconazole; and 15.8% [33/209] multiple/sequenced MATs).

CONCLUSIONS: Breakthrough IFDs were uncommon in patients who received MATs for prophylaxis.


antifungal prophylaxis, isavuconazole, posaconazole, real-world, voriconazole



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