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Food Science & Nutrition


Food is one of the most necessary needs since human civilization. For Muslims, it is mandatory to consume halal food. From a halal authentication perspective, adulteration of food products is an emerging challenge worldwide. The demand for halal food consumption has resulted in an ever-increasing need for halal product validity. In the market, there are several food products in which actual ingredients and their source are not mentioned on the label and cannot be observed by the naked eye. Commonly nonhalal items include pig derivatives like lard, pork, and gelatin derivatives, dead meats, alcohol, blood, and prohibited animals. Purposely, various conventional and modern methods offer precise approaches to ensure the halalness and wholesomeness of food products. Conventional methods are physiochemical (dielectric) and electrophoresis. At the same time, modern techniques include high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), electronic nose (E-Nose), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This review intends to give an extensive and updated overview of conventional and modern analytical methods for ensuring food halal authenticity.


alcohol, conventional methods, halal food authentication, modern techniques, pork, religious ethics



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