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OBJECTIVES: Recently, there has been extensive research on dual immunotherapy for advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet a comprehensive evaluation is lacking. This study aimed to rank the available treatment options and assess the efficacy and safety of dual immunotherapy regimens through the implementation of a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough search was conducted to recognize eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on March 20, 2023. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) and grade ≥3 TRAEs were evaluated to identify the efficacy and safety of dual immunotherapy regimens. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) and

RESULTS: Eleven clinical trials involving six different regimens were included in this study. The combination of anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) antibodies with anti-T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) antibodies emerged as the most promising regimen for improving OS and PFS, followed by anti-PD-1/PD-L1 + anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) + chemotherapy treatment and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 + anti-CTLA-4 treatment. The forest plots demonstrated that these three regimens were all superior to chemotherapy. The above results were observed in both unselected treatment line and first-line settings. The least likely to be associated with TRAEs and grade ≥3 TRAEs were respectively anti-CTLA-4 treatment and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 + anti-TIGIT treatment, with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 + anti-CTLA-4 + chemotherapy treatment to be the worst.

CONCLUSIONS: This NMA validated the promising efficacy and safety of dual immunotherapy in advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Among them, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 + anti-TIGIT regimen emerges as a highly potential therapeutic approach. Ongoing research efforts should focus on improving treatment regimens, identifying biomarkers, and managing TRAEs to optimize the patient benefits of dual immunotherapy.


Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody, Anti-TIGIT antibody, Dual immunotherapy, Immune checkpoint inhibitor, Network meta-analysis, Non-small cell lung cancer

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