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Aluminum (Al) is a metallic toxicant at high concentrations following natural or unnatural exposures. Dietary intake is considered as the main source of aluminum exposure in children. We used data from 366 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2−8 years) who participated as controls in an age- and sex-matched case−control study in Jamaica. We investigated additive and interactive associations among environmental factors and children’s genotypes for glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes (GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1), in relation to having a detectable blood aluminum concentration (BAlC) of >5.0 μg/L, using multivariable logistic regression models. Findings from interactive models revealed that the odds of having a detectable BAlC was significantly higher among children who ate string beans (p ≤ 0.01), whereas about 40% lower odds of having a detectable BAlC was observed in children with higher parental education level, (p = 0.02). A significant interaction between consumption of saltwater fish and GSTP1 in relation to having a detectable BAlC using either co-dominant or dominant genetic models (overall interaction p = 0.02 for both models) indicated that consumption of saltwater fish was associated with higher odds of having a detectable BAlC only among children with the GSTP1 Ile105Val Ile/Ile genotype using either co-dominant or dominant models [OR (95% CI) = 2.73 (1.07, 6.96), p = 0.04; and OR (95% CI) = 2.74 (1.08, 6.99), p = 0.03]. Since this is the first study from Jamaica that reports such findings, replication in other populations is warranted.


Jamaican children, blood Aluminum concentrations, detoxification, environmental factors, glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, interaction



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