Journal Articles

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JMIR Research Protocols


BACKGROUND: The rapid expansion of telehealth services, driven by the COVID-19 pandemic, necessitates systematic evaluation to guarantee the quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth services and programs in the United States. While numerous evaluation frameworks have emerged, crafted by various stakeholders, their comprehensiveness is limited, and the overall state of telehealth evaluation remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of this scoping review is to create a comprehensive overview of telehealth evaluation, incorporating perspectives from multiple stakeholder categories. Specifically, we aim to (1) map the existing landscape of telehealth evaluation, (2) identify key concepts for evaluation, (3) synthesize existing evaluation frameworks, and (4) identify measurements and assessments considered in the United States.

METHODS: We will conduct this scoping review in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for scoping reviews and in line with the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews). This scoping review will consider documents, including reviews, reports, and white papers, published since January 1, 2019. It will focus on evaluation frameworks and associated measurements of telehealth services and programs in the US health care system, developed by telehealth stakeholders, professional organizations, and authoritative sources, excluding those developed by individual researchers, to collect data that reflect the collective expertise and consensus of experts within the respective professional group.

RESULTS: The data extracted from selected documents will be synthesized using tools such as tables and figures. Visual aids like Venn diagrams will be used to illustrate the relationships between the evaluation frameworks from various sources. A narrative summary will be crafted to further describe how the results align with the review objectives, facilitating a comprehensive overview of the findings. This scoping review is expected to conclude by August 2024.

CONCLUSIONS: By addressing critical gaps in telehealth evaluation, this scoping review protocol lays the foundation for a comprehensive and multistakeholder assessment of telehealth services and programs. Its findings will inform policy makers, health care providers, researchers, and other stakeholders in advancing the quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth in the US health care system.




United States, cost, effectiveness, evaluation, framework, healthcare delivery, measurement, quality, scoping review, telehealth



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